8 Course Title: Disaster Response Operations and Management Session Title: The Traditional Approach to Disaster Management Time: 50 minutes Objectives: 8.1 Introduce both the traditional and professional approaches to disaster. It is much more informal and flexible than detailed C2. In areas prone to natural disasters, such as the Asia-Pacific region, interest is growing in the potential for employing commercial, off-the-shelf software-based simulations for enhanced learning using virtual environments. Another fundamental challenge is the need to automate manual records for disaster response and humanitarian assistance organizations, which is just as important as, if somewhat less glamorous than, other critical issues affecting their readiness. More specifically, mobile health (mHealth), which is defined as the use of communication devices such as mobile phones for the purpose of health services information. disaster risk reduction plans and strategies could be revised or developed so that they have the measurable goal of reducing the current risk to acceptable levels. Get trained in CPR or the even simpler hands-only CPR, which could help save someone’s life even when you least expect it. Their personnel are divided into Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) that operate rescue units, Water Purification Units (WPUs) designed to provide safe drinking water; and Emergency Medical Units (EMUs) that use inflatable field hospitals to provide emergency medical treatment. The level of disaster response depends on a number of factors and particular situation awareness. 5.1.2. This includes assessing situations and needs; agreeing common priorities; developing common strategies to address issues such as negotiating access, mobilizing funding and other resources; clarifying consistent public messaging; and monitoring progress. They are used in humanitarian response to facilitate and coordinate aid in various stages including preparedness, response, and recovery from emergencies. The private sector, public sector and nongovernmental organization community must work together to deploy technology solutions in the most effective manner, and to ensure that solutions are appropriate, sustainable and designed to achieve the best possible results. Gilchrist, TX, September 22, 2008 -- An aerial view of a house on 922 Church Street that survived the destruction of Hurricane Ike.  mHealth has been shown to provide effective disaster preparedness with real time collection of medical data as well as helping identify and create needs assessments during disasters. Recurring management problems are presented by the methods of discourse and document analysis. Ongoing challenges in disaster management — such as cross-border issues when disasters affect more than one country, or the need to normalize data so that critical information can be quickly communicated, understood and acted upon — reinforce the need for such clarity and structure. The organisation in the United Kingdom for the provision of communications disaster response is RAYNET. Increasingly disaster management organizations look for applications that are industry-proven, robust, cost-effective, interoperable and, in some cases, able to operate with limited or intermittent connectivity and various levels of network capacity. Global disaster management and humanitarian assistance requires a multifaceted approach that leverages the skills, resources and commitments of corporations, government agencies, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations and individuals. provisional storm drains or diversion dams).The aim of emergency response is to provide immediate assistance to maintain life, improve health and support the morale of the affected population. A retrospective study demonstrated that applying mHealth can lead to up to 15% decrease of unnecessary hospital transfers during disasters. True interoperability is about connecting people, data and diverse processes and organizations, which requires not only flexible technology and accepted standards, but also the fewest possible bureaucratic and regulatory barriers. When considering disaster management solutions, it’s important to look for the following capabilities and benefits: Change occurs rapidly in disaster management. Managing an effective and influential response requires cooperation, which is also facilitated through mHealth. Within the standard, NFPA recognize that disasters and day-to-day emergencies are characteristically different. Nevertheless, the prescribed response elements are the same. They can then use communications and collaboration technology to coordinate massive evacuations and other strategies, and to move people out of harm’s way before the hurricane hits. Interoperable, collaborative environment. The Wi-Fi network is created on the fly by the drones equipped with antennas. DRR strategies ‘define goals and In other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the planners … In the US, the Federal Emergency Management Agency coordinates federal operational and logistical disaster response capability needed to save and sustain lives, minimize suffering, and protect property in a timely and effective manner in communities that become overwhelmed by disasters. Hurricane Season . One absorbing question about disaster response is the relationship between emergency planners and emergency or disaster managers. Son, Jeongwook; Aziz, Zeeshan; Feniosky Peña-Mora. disaster preparedness, disaster response, disaster mitigation and disaster recovery are explained in the chapter. In the absence of real human data on building evacuation, there is a need for a crowd simulator to model egress and decision-making under uncertainty. Nowadays, millions of people use mobile phones as a means of daily communication and data transference, out of which 64% live in developing countries. In a disaster management situation, information is widely distributed and owned by different organizations, critical data is maintained in disparate systems that often don’t interoperate well, and there are no common standards to enable organizations to efficiently organize and share their resources during response operations. Finally, in the case of major incidents, line 3 provides strategic guidance, group resource management, and government and media relations. "Ready for the World: Paramedics Train for International Disasters", International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Emergency Preparedness and Response Program, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, International Council of Voluntary Agencies, International Charter Space and Major Disasters, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, A Brief History of the American Red Cross, "Volunteers Map Some of the Earth's Most Remote Areas to Help Aid Workers", "Global health and natural disaster alerts: preparing mobile phones to endure the unthinkable", "A Pattern for the Effective Factors influencing the Adoption and Implementation of the E-marketing in the Tourism industry", "Evidence of large groups responding more slowly to crises due to false information", "Collective communication and behaviour in response to uncertain 'Danger' in network experiments", Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, CDC's Information on Specific Types of Emergencies, Emergency Preparedness and Response Resources, International Association of Emergency Managers, International Disaster and Risk Conference, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Disaster_response&oldid=992436105, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.  The National Disaster Response Force is an inter-government disaster response agency that specializes in search, rescue and rehabilitation.. In many countries, the people and organizations that work in disaster management also have responsibilities related to national security. fighting fires, rescuing individuals) but also the indirect effects (e.g. In addition, Humanitarian organisations are often strongly present in this phase of the disaster management cycle, particularly in countries where the government lacks the resources to respond adequately to the needs. Floods. The International Charter Space and Major Disasters provides for the charitable retasking of satellite assets, providing coverage from 15 space agencies, etc.  One of the most important characteristics of disasters are the harms caused to infrastructures, accessibility issues, and an exponential need of medical and emergency services. mHealth technology systems can improve post-operative care and patient handoffs between volunteer providers. Trying to find possible drugs on the grid in view of a possible avian flu pandemic, developing rapid earthquake analysis to aid disaster response efforts or analysing crisis management through simulated flooding. , Mobile health information technology platforms, in the acute phase of disaster response, create a common operational framework that improves disaster response by standardizing data acquisition, organizing information storage, and facilitating communication among medical staff. At the community level, it could be a flood, a fire, a collapse of buildings in an earthquake, the destruction of livelihoods, an epidemic or displacement through conflict.  This helped facilitate provider triage, improve provider handoffs, and track vulnerable populations such as unaccompanied minors, pregnant women, traumatic orthopedic injuries and specified infectious diseases. Key Concepts in Disaster Mental Health - 2 5. Previous article in issue; Next article in issue; Keywords. Disaster Is more than just response and relief (i.e., it assumes Management: a more proactive approach) Is a systematic process (i.e., is based on the key Terminology management principles of planning, organising, and leading which includes coordinating and controlling) Aims to reduce the negative impact or consequences of adverse events (i.e., disasters cannot always be … Disaster. More solutions need to be developed to help organizations create and manage response resources and infrastructure between disasters, while others will focus on helping organizations learn from their experiences and capture knowledge that can be used for learning and better planning, and built into training models. The United States National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1600 Standard (NFPA, 2010) specify elements of an emergency response, as: defined responsibilities; specific actions to be taken (which must include protective actions for life safety); and communication directives. The system provides the survivors and the emergency personnel with information to locate and assist each other during a disaster. Public and private sectors face challenges to expand technology-based solutions that increase personnel efficiency, effectiveness, knowledge and flexibility when responding to disasters and crisis situations. Waiting for a disaster to take place is not the right time to plan. disasters. 8.3 Underscore the strengths and weaknesses of the traditional model. It also coordinates the capacity-building and response of government agencies to crises and emergencies. At the household level, a disaster could result in a major illness, death, a substantial economic or social misfortune. Moreover, technology can be a powerful force that opens exciting opportunities for organizations to better achieve their missions and accelerate their impact. The first consists of activities such as prevention, mitigation and preparedness while the second includes the activities of response, recovery and rehabilitation. 8.2 Identify the assumptions and conclusions of the traditional model. Among volunteers, the American Red Cross is chartered by Congress in 1900 to lead and coordinate non-profit efforts.  Data entry with mobile devices is now widely used to facilitate the registration of displaced individuals, to conduct surveys, identify those in need of assistance, and to capture data on issues such as food security, vaccination rates, and mortality. The information on land cover has allowed us to account for both specular reflection, typical of open water, and double bounce backscattering, typical of forested and urban areas. Developing the tools, processes and best practices to meet the demands of the increasing number of disasters. In the event of a disaster, saving human lives is of utmost importance. 6. System security and reliability. The vitality of the business community is a critical dependency for successful economic and social recovery from a disaster. The Business Dictionary provide a more comprehensive definition for "disaster response"; Aggregate of decisions and measures to (1) contain or mitigate the effects of a disastrous event to prevent any further loss of life and/or property, (2) restore order in its immediate aftermath, and (3) re-establish normality through reconstruction and re-rehabilitation shortly thereafter. While it is impossible to plan for every disaster, crisis or emergency, the Statoil investigation into the terrorist attacks on In Amenas place emphasis on the importance of having a disaster response. In less than two months, the Red Cross responded to more disasters than they have in the last four years combined. In this modern age, the occurrence of disasters has only become more frequent. Since 2004, GlobalMedic teams have deployed to over 60 humanitarian disasters around the world. Efforts lead by the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative and Operational Medicine Institute during the Haiti earthquake resulted in the creation of a web-based mHealth system that created a patient log of 617 unique entries used by on-the-ground medical providers and field hospital administrators. In the British Government's Emergency Response and Recovery guidance, disaster response refers to decisions and actions taken in accordance with the strategic, tactical and operational objectives defined by emergency responders. Among the biggest challenges that governments will face is how to vaccinate as many people as possible quickly and safely so that the world can get back to normal … or whatever normal will look like this year, © 2021 All rights reserved. Chapter five entertains the most prevailing disasters in Ethiopia. Another challenge to the effectiveness of disaster management and recovery is sharing information across organizations hampered by a lack of interoperability. Such assistance may range from providing specific but limited aid, such as assisting refugees with transport, temporary shelter, and food, to establishing semi-permanent settlement in camps and other locations. The SmartAmerica initiative challenges the participants to build cyber-physical systems as a glimpse of the future to save lives, create jobs, foster businesses, and improve the economy. a trigger to a certain contingency measure is reached), some judge disasters on their geographical extent and significance with regard to ÒnormalÓ conditions, while some express a disaster in terms of its monetary value in losses. Emergency management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies (preparedness, response, mitigation, and recovery). The Swedish COVID-19 Response Is a Disaster. Smart Emergency Response System (SERS) prototype was built in the SmartAmerica Challenge 2013-2014, a United States government initiative. Organizations that are engaged in disaster management need technology solutions that will enable them to provide lifesaving response and recovery assistance to the people who need their help when disasters strike. ", A recent case study of a disaster response undertaken by the IFRC can be viewed here.. Field agents must respond quickly to changes in the environment. When disasters occur anywhere in the world, the safety of people in the affected areas depends on first responders being prepared and then staying connected and in close collaboration 24 hours a day, until the crisis is resolved. Disaster response implies the probable methods of fulfilling and providing the basic and adequate humanitarian needs that are of importance to those affected. The method is based on the integration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements with additional data on the inundated area, such as a land cover map and a digital elevation model (DEM). In many cases, it allows an area to be surveyed without ever having to step foot there. In many scenarios it is likely to be relatively short and to last for a matter of hours or days—rapid implementation of arrangements for collaboration, co-ordination and communication are, therefore, vital. The biggest international umbrella organizations are the Inter-Agency Standing Committee and the International Council of Voluntary Agencies. In support of the NFPA standard, Statoil's (2013) practical application of emergency response is across three distinct "lines" that incorporate NFPA's elements. Through the use of geospatial tools, USACE provides estimates of possible debris volumes, needs for commodities, number of people and households likely within hurricane force winds, and possible temporary roofing and temporary housing needs starting about three days prior to a … From the introduction above, we know that the EDM methods for natural disasters are based on mathematical models, situation evolution, knowledge management and group decision making, these methods have been widely used but have some drawbacks and limitations. Also, the Emergency Preparedness and Response Program of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health develops resources to address responder safety and health during responder and recovery operations. Disaster response is the second phase of the disaster management cycle. Comprehensive system manageability. This requires a degree of planning and reconstruction that’s designed not only to rebuild a community to what it was before, by revitalizing the culture and core of what enabled it to thrive in the past, but also to infuse new concepts of innovation and resiliency that will increase economic vitality. Disaster Response & Recovery CMHS-US Dept of Health & Human Svcs. "Response" is defined (in this context) as: Noun: An answer or reply, as in words or in some action. Natural disasters are becoming more frequent, growing more severe and affecting more people than ever before. Lastly, recovery of the business community after a natural disaster should be a high priority. Above all, mHealth can harness the power of information to improve patient outcomes. Organisations for Disaster Reduction (GNDR). Disasters affect millions of people each year on a personal, business, local community or national level. Czekaj, Laura. 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